Dr. Yuriy May is the #1 Holistic Dentist in Connecticut/New York/Massachusetts for Safe Amalgam Removal
Safe Dental Amalgam Removal, also known as Safe Mercury Removal, Safe Silver Filling Removal and Safe Metal Removal, is an extremely dangerous and hazardous procedure if not done correctly by an IAOMT accredited and S.M.A.R.T. certified dentist, specifically a dentist who doesn’t understand or isn’t aware of the dangers of amalgam mercury removal and required procedures to keep patients and staff safe. Studies have cited the deteriorating mental and physical condition of non-mercury-safe dentists that have lacked of awareness about the toxicity and danger of removing dental amalgams without proper safety protocols. Due to the constant and continuous exposure to vaporized mercury that occurs during drilling amalgam fillings without proper protection, publications have speculated that there is a strong correlation between dentists holding the highest suicides rates among all medical professions and their extremely high exposure to mercury.
What is Dental Amalgam? What is Mercury?
The dental amalgam metal that is in patients’ teeth has the following chemical makeup, by weight:
Mercury amalgam (silver) fillings material composition:
- 50% mercury
- 35% silver
- 15% copper, nickel, tin, zinc, other
Mercury is the THIRD most toxic substance known to man • Mercury is more toxic than Lead, Arsenic, and Cadmium(1)
Mercury amalgam was first introduced to North America in 1833, during which time, it was believed that when liquid mercury was inserted into an alloy (mixed metal) compound and the metals hardened the mercury was permanently “locked into” the amalgamation of metal and no longer could pose a danger to the body because the mercury could not escape. Unfortunately, this false belief mistakenly persists today and is perpetuated by several medical and dental societies and currently the FDA, who have been embroiled in decades of controversy from agencies ranging to the EPA, IAOMT, IABDM, ASDS and HDA.
Dental amalgam fillings have been shown to emit mercury vapors continuously, especially during brushing and consuming hot liquids. It is now generally accepted that mercury is being released (i.e.leaching from amalgam fillings) in small amounts from the filling during its entire lifetime. However, controversy exits whether the amount of mercury vapor released from amalgam fillings is enough to cause harm to individuals. Most traditional dentists, take the approach that amalgam fillings are harmless and the amount of vapor releases is below the exposure required to cause neurotoxicity and disease. Dr. Yuriy May, an accredited member if the IAOMT (International Academy of Oral Medicine & Toxicology) believes that no amount of mercury exposure is safe to humans, especially mercury that is continuously being released over a lifetime, as supported by years of research and education.
Heavy metal toxicity from constant small amounts of mercury exposure (i.e.leaching) is an overlooked problem in dentistry today. Part of this problem is the controversial threshold for toxicity, which varies from person to person. The bottom line is that cumulative exposure to the mercury,the third most toxic element known to humans, will eventually cause mercury toxicity or at the very least place stress on individuals’ immune systems.
Proper removal of mercury amalgam fillings has become a specialty for all Northeast patients who visit Natural Dentistry and Dr. Yuriy May in Connecticut, Massachusetts and New York offices
Consider the following facts:
- Mercury fillings continually vaporize (i.e. leach mercury vapor) in the mouth especially when chewing, brushing, or drinking hot liquids.
- As mercury vapor is inhaled and swallowed, it is readily absorbed into the blood stream, passing through the various organs and into the brain.
- Mercury from dental amalgam fillings becomes widely distributed throughout the body and can stay lodged for long periods of time, typically accumulating over a lifetime.
- In autopsy studies, there is a correlation between the amount of mercury in brain tissue and the number of mercury amalgam fillings in the mouth.
- The mercury absorbed from dental amalgams can cause body chemistry and organ function to change.
These changes can be subtle, but continually present over long periods of time and can end up being detrimental to certain individuals. Additionally, since each amalgam filling is an alloy, meaning a mix of numerous metals, there are at least five different metals inside each mercury amalgam filling, and this can cause electrical current problems in the mouth, known as galvanic effects.
Natural Dentistry’s Rigorous Safe Amalgam Removal Process
In order to ensure safety during dental amalgam removal for both patients and staff, a rigorous and robust process must be adhered to in order to reduce mercury vaporizing into the operatory air, keeping the mercury from entering the patient’s separate air supply, prevent mercury dust elements from landing on patients hair/skin/mouth, and ultimately to isolate and trap all mercury particle and dust in a mercury-safe biohazard filter. In this process there are a series of steps and precautions that must be followed in order to minimize mercury exposure to the patient, Dr. May and dental staff. All Natural Dentistry patients will be fully educated on the protocol, process and what to expect during the procedure.
Top Amalgam Removal Dentist in USA : Dr. Yuriy May
Not only do all the Connecticut, New York, Rhode Island, New Jersey and Massachusetts patients looking for the top holistic dentist in the country see Dr. Yuriy May as their primary safe amalgam removal dentist, but they also travel to Dr. May for root canal removals and cavitation dental surgery. What most important, is that patient from all over the world with lyme disease, fibromyalgia, cancer, parkinson’s, multiple sclerosis (MS), and other chronic conditions seek Dr. Yuriy May’s detoxification amalgam removal protocols and entrust their health completely to Natural Dentistry staff as their leadership and expertise in the field of biological and holistic dentistry has long been established as the top in the country. In addition, Dr. Yuriy May applies some of the most rigorous SAFE amalgam removal protocols and is S.M.A.R.T. certified by the IAOMT and also accredited, in additional to being a doctoral graduate from the America Academy of Integrative Medicine and Dentistry earning him a Naturopathic Doctor degree in addition to being a prolific dental surgeon specializing in zirconia implants, cavitations, infected root canal removal and PRF 100% autologous bone grafting.
Prepare the body for the amalgam removal procedure by following Dr. May’s prescribed Mercury Removal Conditioning Protocol
1. Keep the fillings cool
Mercury amalgam removal must be conducted under a continuous and copious quantity of cold water spray. The cold water prevents the dental burr from heating up during its contact with the amalgam filling, which creates heat from friction. During the heat process, the amalgam filling heats up and releases more mercury into the air than when its a cool state. By keeping the temperature of the amalgam filling cool, Dr. May is able to reduce the vaporization of mercury reducing the contamination of the air supply and oral cavity.
2. Provide an alternative air source
All patients having mercury amalgam removal procedures are given an alternative air source and instructed not to breathe through their mouth during treatment. A sealed nasal hood with oxygen is used throughout the mercury amalgam removal procedure. Dr. Yuriy May and his staff also wear full face mercury vapour filtration (gas) masks to prevent mercury from entering their breathing passages and lungs for protection.
3. Cover and protect all exposed skin
The serious protective measures include Dr. May and the highly trained dental assistant donning a disposable full body suit (similar to CDC Level 4 suits), a fully sealed hair cover, preventing air or particles from landing on their clothes and skin, elbow length gloves to prevent mercury dust from traveling up their sleeves, and full facial shields over their mask as an additional measure of keeping the mercury vapor away from their eyes, nose and ears and gas mask filtration chamber. Too many times, Natural Dentistry has observed skin irritations developing on patients and staff from an accumulation of mercury dust landing on exposed skin, and has made it a policy to cover all exposed skin, nails and hair to prevent dermal mercury reactions.
4. Section off that portion of the mouth
A latex free rubber dam, made of specific material that is non-metal reactive is always used during the mercury amalgam removal procedure to prevent inhalation and settlement of the mercury vapour and dust within the mouth. The purpose of the heavy duty and speacially formulated dental dam is to also prevent highly hazardous ingestion of mercury particulate (pieces that are larger than vapor).
5. Cover and protect all exposed skin, hair and nails
In addition the dental dam, the patients face is fully covered with a moist paper towel, large dark oversize glasses, ears are covered with over the year noise-canceling high-fidelity BEATS wireless headphones, hair is covered with tight sealed disposable bonnet, the patient’s body and clothes are covered with a full disposable blanket and they are asked to wear gloves protecting the skin on their hands. This is to protect the patient from accumulating mercury particulate on their skin, hair or clothes and to protect their eyes and ears from exposure to both the mercury dust and vapor.
6. Apply a cut and chunk drilling technique
Dr. May has spend over 500 hours in hands on training and scientific studies on both the chemical properties and toxicity of mercury and the proper safe mercury removal protocols with focus on detoxification, toxicity reversal and amalgam removal. Due to this, Dr. May is one of a handful of top trained amalgam removal dentists in the country who is familiar with the “cut & chunk” technique. This requires using a very crude dental drill which can break the amalgam up into 3-4 large pieces preventing vaporization and creating a large amount of mercury particulate. Regular dentist who instead drill with a standard dental drill or even worse, a smaller dental drill are actually actually drilling the amalgam, heating it up and thus dangerously vaporizing it both from the physical act of drilling and the heat stimulation causing the mercury to further dissociate from the bonded metal alloy.
7. Use a high volume evacuator
Once the removal process has started, mercury vapor and particulate will be continuously released from the tooth during the removal procedure. A high volume evacuator (suction) tip is kept near the tooth at all times during the removal procedure to evacuate any vapor and particulate from the labial and nasal area. Particles of mercury alloy are washed and vacuumed away as soon as they are generated. The Dental Solution office has a massive industrial sized air suction and purification machine which has the capability to clear and purify the air of a 5,000 sq ft facility in just under 3 minutes, allowing the air to be fully purified in Dr. May’s custom build 250 sq ft dental operatory every 10 seconds. This means that between the alternative air supply, fully covered hair, skin, nails, clothes, hair and the doctor’s filtration face masks, no one is exposed to mercury vapor during the procedure and all mercury dust is virtually non-existent. The suction tube is 8 inches in diameter and resides 2 inches from patients’ face during the amalgam removal procedure.
8. Keep the treatment room air pure and flowing
Natural Dentistry houses over 40,000 BTU of air purifiers, exhaust suction, in addition to ionizers and carbon floor filters for maximum quality of air as measured by air purity and no mercury microparticles. This level of dedication and resources solely for keeping the air purified and clean ensures patients’ and staffs’ safety and wellbeing. All our operatories have been constructed with amalgam removal procedures in mind, and there is a high turnover of airflow (10 seconds or less) in each treatment room at all times.
9. Further Detoxification is CRITICAL to successful mercury removal from all bodily tissues
Removing mercury amalgams from your mouth is ONLY eliminating the primary and major source of mercury leaching into the body. The next step is to get help to rid the body of its mercury burden. Dr. May has worked with world renowned chelation specialists and MDs specializing in detoxification to create an incredibly effective detoxification and chelation protocol through supplementation and other modalities. Additionally, Dr. May works and partners with all Connecticut, U.S. and International based naturopaths, cancer clinics, functional MDs and osteopaths to create highly customized chelation protocol based on each patients unique health situation and ongoing health conditions. If a patient does not have an alternative care physician who has knowledge of detoxification and the mercury detoxification / chelation protocol requires unique modifications, Dr. May will refer patients to his detoxification specialists in and outside of Connecticut to create a customs individual detoxification programs and oversee the patient progress in partnership with a physician. Please ask Natural Dentistry about our physician partners and detoxification physician specialists as referrals can be made for those who make requests.
Dr. Yuriy May is the ONLY IAOMT accredited and S.M.A.R.T. Certified dentist in CT for Safe Amalgam Removal!
What is S.MA.R.T Certification by the IAOMT?
- Dentist must join the IAOMT as a General Member.
- Holistic dentist must enroll in the SMART certification program.
- Complete Unit 2 (Mercury 101/102) and Unit 3 (Safe Removal) of IAOMT’s accreditation course, which includes taking and passing unit tests. The coursework and the entire SMART certification process has additional coursework online. This does not require enrollment in accreditation, as accreditation takes upwards of a year.
- Holistic Dentist must complete post-course requirements for SMART which consist of learning about the science that supports SMART, the equipment that is part of SMART, and the resources from the IAOMT that enable dentists to implement SMART in their daily practice.
- Holistic Dentist must apply for SMART Certification based upon completion of requirements.
- Holistic Dentist must maintain SMART Certification by paying the annual SMART re-enrollment fee on July 1st, as well as learning about any updates to the program that have been developed based on new research.
Symptoms of Mercury Poisoning
Recognized by the ADA
It is well known that mercury (Hg) will store first in the kidneys, second in the liver, third in neurological (brain) tissue and fourth dispersed through the rest of the body. Symptoms related to mercury toxicity are vast; however, even the American Dental Association (ADA) admits to the following symptoms:
- Tremor observed in the fine voluntary muscle movement (such as handwriting), eventually progressing to convulsions and seizures.
- Depression, fatigue, increased irritability, moodiness and nervous excitability, especially when under stress.
- Inability to concentrate; loss of memory.
- Insomnia or drowsiness.
- Nausea and diarrhea
- Loss of appetite
- Birth defects in offspring.
- Nephritis or symptoms of kidney disease.
- Swollen glands and tongue.
- Ulceration of oral mucosa.
- Dark Pigmentation of marginal and loosening of teeth.
- Even Colgate, the toothpaste giant of America, admits some risk to amalgam fillings…
Politicians Supporting Amalgam Restrictions & Lobbying Against Amalgam Use in Dentistry
- Senator Patty Murray of Washington write FDA
- Congressman Jim Moran of Virginia
- Senator Mike Enzi of Wyoming
- Senator Richard Lugar of Indiana
- Congressman Adam Schiff of California
- Senator Mark Udall of Colorado
- Congressman Dan Burton of Indiana
All mentioned above have written the FDA regarding restricting, curtailing or stopping amalgam us in density on behalf of constituents in the past.
How to pick the best holistic dentist and assess IAOMT certification? Dr. May is both accredited and SMART certified!
SMART Certified: A SMART certified member has successfully completed a course on mercury and safe dental mercury amalgam removal, including two units consisting of scientific readings, online learning videos, and tests. The crux of this essential course on the IAOMT’s Safe Mercury Amalgam Removal Technique (SMART) involves learning about the rigorous safety measures and equipment for reducing exposures to mercury releases during the removal of amalgam fillings. A SMART certified member may or may not have achieved a higher level of certification such as Accreditation, Fellowship, or Mastership.
Accredited–(AIAOMT): The Accredited member has successfully completed a ten unit course on biological dentistry, including units on mercury, safe mercury amalgam removal, fluoride, biological periodontal therapy, hidden pathogens in jawbone and root canals, and more. This course involves examination of over 50 scientific and medical research articles, participation in an e-learning component of the curriculum which includes ten videos, and demonstration of mastery on ten detailed unit tests. An Accredited member is a member who has also completed the Fundamentals of Biological Dentistry Course and who has attended at least two IAOMT meetings, as well as passed an oral interview exam for safe amalgam removal. Note that the Accredited member may or may not be SMART certified and may or may not have achieved a higher level of certification such as Fellowship or Mastership. To view the accreditation course description by unit, click here. To learn more about becoming accredited, click here.
- “Metals and Neurotoxic Effect” Journal of Comparable Pathology, 1981
Just in case someone (ie: a traditional dentist) tells you there is no research on amalgam dangers or mercury being a highly toxic neurotoxin and that is well known to be almost lethal in small doses….below are over 200 citations to the “lack of scientific proof” that mercury is the 3rd most dangerous substance known to mankind and in case you have it in your mouth, you should consider getting it removed SAFELY and only with a SMART certified IAOMT accredited dentist like Dr. Yuriy May.
1. U.S. EPA. Fish consumption advice. www.epa.gov/mercury/fishadv.pdf
2. Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)
3. Drózdz W, Wojnar, M, Araszkiewicz A, et al. The study of the prevalence of depressive disorders in primary care patients in Poland. Wiad Lek. 2007; 60(3-4): 109-13.
4. Zárate A, Basurto L, Hernández M. Thyroid malfunction in women. Ginecol Obstet Mex. 2001 May; 69: 200-5.
5. Wier FA, Farley CL. Clinical controversies in screening women for thyroid disorders during pregnancy. J Midwifery Women’s Health. 2006 May-Jun; 51(3): 152-8.
6. Stagnaro-Green A. Postpartum thyroiditis. Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun; 18(2): 303-16.
7. Stagnaro-Green A. Recognizing, understanding, and treating postpartum thyroiditis. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2000 Jun; 29(2): 417-30.
8. Harris B. Postpartum depression and thyroid antibody status. Thyroid. 1999 Jul; 9(7): 699-703.
9. Gerhard I, Monga B, Waldbrenner A, Runnebaum B. Heavy metals and fertility. J of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 1998; 54(8): 593-611.
10. Gerhard I, Waibel S, Daniel V, Runnebaum B. Impact of heavy metals on hormonal and immunological factors in women with repeated miscarriages. Hum Reprod Update. 1998 May;4(3):301-309
11. Gerhard I. Ganzheitiche Diagnostik un Therapie bie Infertilitat. Erfahrungsheilkunde. 1993, 42(3): 100-106.
12. Kruse-Jarres JD, ed. Hormonal conditions affecting women caused by environmental poisons.Pravention, Diagnose und Therapie von Umwelterkrankungen. 1993: 51-68.
13. Gerhard I, Waldbrenner P, Thuro H, Runnebaum B. Diagnosis of heavy metal loading by the oral DMPS and chewing gum tests. Klinisches Labor. 1992; 38: 404-411.
14. Hetil AZ. Some neurological and psychiatric complications in endocrine disorders: The thyroid gland [Article in Hungarian]. National Center for Biotechnology. 2007 Feb 18; 148(7): 303-10.
15. Kooistra L, Crawford S, van Baar AL, Brouwers EP, Pop VJ. Neonatal effects of maternal hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Pediatrics. 2006 Jan; 117(1):161-7.
16. Menif O, Omar S, Feki M, Kaabachi N. Hypothyroidism and pregnancy: Impact on mother and child health. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2008 Jan 29; 66(1): 43-51.
17. Davis, JD. Neuropsychiatric aspects of hypothyroidism and treatment reversibility. Minerva Endocrine.2007 Mar; 32(1):49-65.
18. Almeida C, Brasil MA, Costa AJ, et al. Tremont Subclinical hypothyroidism: Psychiatric disorders and symptoms. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2007 Jun; 29(2):157-9.
19. Nylander M, Friberg L, Eggleston D, Björkman L. Mercury accumulation in tissues from dental staff and controls in relation to exposure. Swed Dent J. 1989; 13(6): 235-43.
20. Drasch, Schupp I, Höfl H, Reinke R, Roider G. Mercury burden of human fetal and infant tissues. Eur J Pediatr. 1994 Aug; 153(8): 607-10.
21. Guzzi G, Grandi M, Severi G, et al. Dental amalgam and mercury levels in autopsy tissues: food for thought. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2006 Mar; 27(1): 42-5.
22. Lichtenberg H. Mercury vapor in the oral cavity in relation to number of amalgam surfaces and the classic symptoms of chronic mercury poisoning. J Orthomol Med. 1996); 11(2): 87-94. www.lichtenberg.dk/symptoms_before_and_after_proper.htm
23. Björkman L, Lundekvam BF, Vahter M, et al. Mercury in human brain, blood, muscle and toenails in relation to exposure: An autopsy study. Environ Health. 2007 Oct 11; 6: 30.
24. Hanson M. Amalgam hazards in your teeth. J. Orthomolecular Psychiatry. 1983; 2(3): 194-201.
25. Vimy MJ, Takahashi, Y, Lorscheider FL. Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury released from dental amalgam fillings. Amer. J. Physiol. 1990; 258: R939-945.
26. Hahn LJ, Kloiber R, Leininger RW, Vimy MJ, Lorscheider FL. Distribution of mercury released from amalgam fillings into monkey tissues. FASEB J. 1990; 4: 5536.
27. Goyer RA. “Toxic effects of metals” in Toxicology The Basic Science of Poisons. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1993.
28. Goodman, Gillman. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. New York: Mac Millan Publishing Company, 1985.
29. Oskarsson A, Schultz A, Skerfving S, Hallen IP, Ohlin B, Lagerkvist BJ. Mercury in breast milk in relation to fish consumption and amalgam. Arch Environ Health. 1996; 51(3): 234-41.
30. Drasch G, Aigner S, Roider G, Staiger F, Lipowsky G. Mercury in human colostrum and early breast milk. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1998; 12: 23-27.
31. Paccagnella B, Riolfatti M. Total mercury levels in human milk from Italian mothers. Ann Ig. 1989: 1(3-4): 661-71.
32. Yang J, Jiang Z, Wang Y, Qureshi IA, Wu XD. Maternal-fetal transfer of metallic mercury via placenta and milk. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1997; 27(2):135-141.
33. Sundberg J, Ersson B, Lonnerdal B, Oskarsson A. Protein binding of mercury in milk and plasma from mice and man: A comparison between methylmercury and inorganic mercury. Toxicology. 1999 Oct 1; 137(3): 169-84.
34. Kuhnert PM, Kuhnert BR, Erhard P. Comparison of mercury levels in maternal blood, fetal blood, fetal cord blood, and placental tissues. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1981; 139(2): 209-13.
35. Vahter M, Akesson A, Lind B, Bjors U, Schutz A, Berglund M. Longitudinal study of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in blood and urine of pregnant and lactating women, as well as in umbilical cord blood. Environ Res. 2000 Oct; 84(2):186-9.
36. Kuntz WD, Pitkin RM, Bostrom AW, Hughes MS. Maternal and cord blood mercury background levels: A longitudinal surveillance. Am J Obstet and Gynecol. 1982; 143(4): 440-443.
37. Ramirez GB, Cruz MC, Pagulayan O, Ostrea E, Dalisay C. The Tagum study I: Analysis and clinical correlates of mercury in maternal and cord blood, breast milk, meconium, and infants’ hair. Pediatrics. 2000 Oct; 106(4): 774-81.
38. Ramirez GB, Pagulayan O, Akagi H, et al. Tagum study II: Follow-up study at two years of age after prenatal exposure to mercury. Pediatrics. 2003 Mar; 111(3):e289-95.
39. Warfvinge K, Berlin M, Logdberg B. The effect on pregnancy outcome and fetal brain development of prenatal exposure to mercury vapour. Neurotoxicology. 1994; 15(4).
40. Drexler H, Schaller KH. The mercury concentration in breast milk resulting from amalgam fillings and dietary habits. Environ Res. 1998; 77(2): 124-9.
41. Mottet NK, Shaw CM, Burbacher, TM. Health risks from increases in methylmercury exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1985; 63: 133-140.
42. Grandjean P, et al. MeHg and neurotoxicity in children. Am J Epidemiol. 1999.
43. Sorensen N, et al. Prenatal mercury exposure raises blood pressure. Epidemiology. 1999; 10: 370-375
44. Markovich, et al. Heavy metals(Hg,Cd) inhibit the activity of the liver and kidney sulfate transporter Sat-1. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1999; 154(2):181-7.
45. McFadden SA. Xenobiotic metabolism and adverse environmental response: Sulfur-dependent detox pathways. Toxicology. 1996; 111(1-3): 43-65.
46. Langley-Evans SC, et al. SO2: A potent glutathion depleting agent. Comp Biochem Physiol Pharmocol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1996; 114(2):89-98.
47. Alberti A, Pirrone P, Elia M, Waring RH, Romano C. Sulphation deficit in “low-functioning” autistic children. Biol Psychiatry. 1999; 46(3): 420-4.
48. Huggins HA, Levy TE. Uniformed Consent: The Hidden Dangers in Dental Care. Hampton Roads Publishing Company Inc., 1999.
49. Huggins H. It’s All in Your Head. Center for Progressive Medicine, 1999.
50. Huggins Applied Healing. www.hugginsappliedhealing.com/
51. Podzimek S, Prochazkova J, Bultasova L,et. al. Sensitization to inorganic mercury could be a risk factor for infertility. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 2005 Aug; 26(4): 277-82.
52. Ziff S, Ziff M. Infertility and Birth Defects: Is Mercury from Dental Fillings a Hidden Cause? Bio-Probe, Inc. n.d.
53. Friese KH. Homoopathische behandlung der amalgamvergiftung. Allg. Homoopathische Z. 1993; 241(5): 184-187.
54. Friese KH. Amalgamvergiftung moglicher. Der Naturazt. 1995; 135(8):13-15.
55. Friese KH. Schnupfen-Was tun? Therapeutikon. 1994; 8(3): 62-68
56. Knapp LT, Klann E. Superoxide-induced stimulation of protein kinase C via modification and modulation of zinc content. J Biol Chem. 2000 May 22.
57. Rajanna B, et al. Modulation of protein kinase C by heavy metals. Toxicol Lett. 1995; 81(2-3):197-203.
58. Kingman A, et al. Mercury concentrations in urine and blood associated with amalgam exposure in the U.S. military population. Dent Res. 1998; 77(3):461-71.
59. Sin YM, Teh WF, Wong MK, Reddy PK. Effect of mercury on glutathione and thyroid hormones. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 1990; 44(4):616-622.
60. Kawada J, et al. Effects of inorganic and methyl mercury on thyroidal function. J Pharmacobiodyn. 1980; 3(3):149-59.
61. Ghosh N. Thyrotoxicity of cadmium and mercury. Biomed Environ Sci. 1992, 5(3): 236-40.
62. Goldman, Blackburn. The effect of mercuric chloride on thyroid function of the rat. Toxicol and Applied Pharm. 1979; 48: 49-55.
63. Kabuto M. Chronic effects of methylmercury on the urinary excretion of catecholamines and their responses to hypoglycemic stress. Arch Toxicol. 1991; 65(2):164-7.
64. Lutz E, et al. Concentrations of mercury in brain and kidney of fetuses and infants. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 1996, 10: 61-67.
65. Drasch G, et al. Mercury burden of human fetal and infant tissues. Eur J Pediatr. 2994; 153: 607-610.
66. Veltman JC, et al. Alterations of heme, cytochrome P-450, and steroid metabolism by mercury in rat adrenal gland. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1986; 248(2): 467-78.
67. Riedl AG, et al. P450 and hemeoxygenase enzymes in the basal ganglia and their roles in Parkinson’s disease. Adv Neurol. 1999; 80: 271-86.
68. Zamm AV. Dental mercury: A factor that aggravates and induces xenobiotic intolerance. J. Orthmol.Med. 1991; 6(2): 67-77.
69. Nishida M, Muraoka K, et al. Differential effects of methylmercuric chloride and mercuric chloride on the histochemistry of rat thyroid peroxidase and the thyroid peroxidase activity of isolated pig thyroid cells. J Histochem Cytochem. 1989 May; 37(5):723-7.
70. Khayat A, Dencker L. Whole body and liver distribution of inhaled mercury vapor in the mouse: influence of ethanol and aminotriazole pretreatment. J Appl Toxicol. 1983 Apr; 3(2): 66-74.
71. Weiner JA, Nylander M. The relationship between mercury concentration in human organs and different predictor variables. Sci Total Environ. 1993 Sep 30; 138(1-3):101-15.
72. Falnoga I, Tusek-Znidaric M, Horvat M, Stegnar P. Mercury, selenium, and cadmium in human autopsy samples from Idrija residents and mercury mine workers. Environ Res. 2000 Nov; 84(3): 211-8.
73. Lindqvist B, et al. Effects of removing amalgam fillings from patients with diseases affecting the immune system. Med Sci Res. 1996; 24(5): 355-356.
74. Goldberg AF, et al. Effect of amalgam restorations on whole body potassium and bone mineral content in older men. Gen Dent. 1996; 44(3): 246-8.
75. Schirrmacher K, 1998. Effects of lead, mercury, and methyl mercury on gap junctions and [Ca2+] I in bone cells. Calcif Tissue Int. 1998 Aug; 63(2): 134-9.
76. Nylander M, et al. Mercury accumulation in tissues from dental staff and controls. Swedish Dental Journal. 1989; 13:235-243.
77. Nylander M, Mercury in pituitary glands of dentists. Lancet. 1986; 442.
78. Facemire CF, et al. Reproductive impairment in the Florida panther. Environmental Health Perspectives.1995; 103(4): 79-86.
79. Yang JM, Jiang XZ, Chen QY, Li PJ, Zhou YF, Wang YL. The distribution of HgCl2 in rat body and its effect on fetus. Environ. 1996; 9(4): 437-42.
80. Maretta M, et al. Effect of mercury on the epithelium of the fowl testis. Vet Hung 1995; 43(1):153-6.
81. Colborn T, ed. Chemically Induced Alterations in Functional Development. Princeton Scientific Press, 1992.
82. Colborn T, Developmental effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, Environ Heath Perspectives. 1993; 101(5).
83. Giwercman A, Carlsen E, Keiding N, Skakkabaek NE. Evidence for increasing incidence of abnormalities of the human testis: A review, Environ Health Perspect. 1993; 101(2): 65-71.
84. Siblerud RL, et al. Psychometric evidence that mercury from dental fillings may be a factor in depression, anger, and anxiety. Psychol Rep. 1994; 74(1).
85. Glavinskiaia TA, et al. Complexons in the treatment of lupus erghematousus. Dermatol Venerol. 1980; 12: 24-28.
86. Panasiuk J, Peripheral blood lymphocyte transformation test in various skin diseases of allergic origin [Article in Polish]. Przegl Dermatol. 1980; 67(6): 823-9.
87. Aschner M, et al. Metallothionein induction in fetal rat brain by in utero exposure to elemental mercury vapor. Brain Research. 1997; 778(1): 222-32.
88. O’Halloran TV, Transition metals in control of gene expression. Science. 1993; 261(5122): 715-25.
89. Matts RL, Schatz JR, Hurst R, Kagen R. Toxic heavy metal ions inhibit reduction of disulfide bonds. J Biol Chem. 1991; 266(19): 12695-702.
90. Boot JH. Effects of SH-blocking compounds on the energy metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes. Cell Struct Funct. 1995; 20(3): 233-8.
91. Ono B, et al. Reduced tyrosine uptake in strains sensitive to inorganic mercury. Genet. 1987; 11(5): 399.
92. Noda M, Wataha JC, Lockwood PE, Volkmann KR, Kaga M, Sano H. Sublethal, 2-week exposures of dental material components alter TNF-alpha secretion of THP-1 monocytes. Dent Mater. 2003; 19(2): 101-5.
93. Kim SH, Johnson VJ, Sharma RP. Mercury inhibits nitric oxide production but activates proinflammatory cytokine expression in murine macrophage: Differential modulation of NF-kappaB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Nitric Oxide. 2002 Aug; 7(1): 67-74.
94. Chen L, Nordlind K, Liden S, Sticherling M. Increased expression of keratinocyte interleukin-8 in human contact eczematous reactions to heavy metals. APMIS. 1996 Jul-Aug; 104(7-8): 509-14.
95. Feighery L, Collins C, Feighery C, et al. Anti-transglutaminase antibodies and the serological diagnosis of coeliac disease. Br J Biomed Sci. 2003; 60(1): 14-8.
96. Gerhard I, Runnebaum B, The limits of hormone substitution in pollutant exposure and fertility disorders. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1992; 114, 593-602.
97. Gerhard I. Fortpflanzungsstörungen durch Umweltgifte? Therapeutikon. 1993; 7: 478-491.
98. Roller E, Vallon U, und Clédon, Ph. Einfluß von Schwermetallen auf die Progesteronsynthese von Leydig-Zellen. J Fert Reprod. 1995; 3: 33.
99. Vallon U, Roller E, und Clédon Ph. Schwermetallionen beeinflussen die Progesteronsynthese von humanen Granulosazellen bei IVF-Patientinnen: Anwendung eines alternativen in-vitro-Zytotoxizitätstests. J Fert Reprod. 1995; 3: 31.
100. Monnet-Tschudi F, Zurich MG, Honegger P. Comparison of the developmental effects of two mercury compounds on glial cells and neurons in aggregate cultures of rat telencephalon. Brain Res. 1996 Nov 25; 741(1-2): 52-9.
101. Mathieson PW, Mercury: God of TH2 cells. Clinical Exp Immunol. 1995; 102(2): 229-30.
102. Heo Y, Parsons PJ, Lawrence DA. Lead differentially modifies cytokine production in vitro and in vivo. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1996; 138: 149-57.
103. Murdoch RD, Pepys J. Enhancement of antibody and IgE production by mercury and platinum salts. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 198; 80: 405-11.
104. World Health Organization(WHO). Environmental Health Criteria 118, Inorganic Mercury, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. 1991.
105. Klobusch J, Rabe T, Gerhard I, Runnebaum B. Alopecia and environmental pollution. Klinisches Labor.1992; 38: 469-476.
106. Kunzel G, et al. Schwermetallbelastungen bei Patientinnen mit Alopezie. Arch Gynecol. Obstet. 1993; 254(1-4): 278-80.
107. Schrallhammer-Benkler K, et al. Acute mercury intoxication with lichenoid drug eruption followed by mercury contact allergy and development of antinuclear antibodies. Acta Derm Venereol. 1992 Aug; 72(4): 294-6.
108. Nogi N. Electric current around dental metals as a factor producing allergic metal ions in the oral cavity. Nippon Hifuka Gakkai Zasshi. 1989; 99(12): 1243-54.
109. Bergdahl J, Certosimo AJ, et al. Oral electricity, Gen Dent. 1996; 44(4): 324-6.
110. Owens BM, et al. Localized galvanic shock after insertion of an amalgam restoration. Compendium. 1993; 14(10): 1302, 1304, 1306-7.
111. Rose MD, et al, The tarnished history of a posteria restoration. British Dental Journal. 1998; 185(9): 436.
112. Meyer RD, et al. Intraoral galvanic corrosion. Prosthet Dent. 1993; 69(2):141-3.
113. Ogletree RH, et al. Effects of mercury on corrosion of eta’ Cu-Sn phase in dental amalgams. Dent Mater. 1995; 11(5): 332-6.
114. Danielsson BRG, et al. Ferotoxicity of inorganic mercury: Distribution and effects of nutrient uptake by placenta and fetus. Biol Res Preg Perinatal. 1984; 5(3):102-109.
115. Vimy MJ, Hooper DE, King WW, Lorscheider FL Mercury from maternal “silver” tooth fillings in sheep and human breast milk: A source of neonatal exposure. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1997 Feb; 56(2): 143-52.
116. Vimy MJ, Takahashi Y, Lorscheider FL. Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury (203Hg) released from dental amalgam fillings. Am J Physiol. 1990 Apr; 258(4.2): R939-45.
117. Schiele R, et al. Studies of organ mercury content related to number of amalgam fillings, Symposium paper. Cologne, Germany. 1984.
118. Bigazzi RE. Autoimmunity and heavy metals. Lupus. 1994; 3: 449-453.
119. Pollard KM, Pearson Dl, Hultman P. Lupus-prone mice as model to study xenobiotic-induced autoimmunity. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1999; 107(5): 729-735.
120. Nielsen JB, Hultman P. Experimental studies on genetically determined susceptibility to mercury-induced autoimmune response. Ren Fail. 1999 May-Jul; 21(3-4): 343-8.
121. Hultman P, Enestrom S. Mercury induced antinuclear antibodies in mice. Clinical and Exper Immunology. 1988; 71(2): 269-274.
122. Woods JS, et al. Urinary porphyrin profiles as biomarker of mercury exposure: studies on dentists. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1993; 40(2-3): 235.
123. Woods JS, et al. Altered porphyrin metabolites as a biomarker of mercury exposure and toxicity. Physiol Pharmocol. 1996; 74(2): 210-15.
124. Kumar AR, Kurup PA. Inhibition of membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity: A common pathway in central nervous system disorders. J Assoc Physicians India. 2002 Mar; 50: 400.
125. Danielsson BR, et al. Behavioral effects of prenatal metallic mercury inhalation exposure in rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1993; 15(6): 391-6.
126. Fredriksson A, et al. Prenatal exposure to metallic mercury vapor and methyl mercury produce interactive behavioral changes in adult rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1996; 18(2): 129-34.
127. Weber, BA. The Marburg Amalgam Study. Arzt und Umwelt. 1995.
128. Aposhian, HV. Mobilization of mercury and arsenic in humans by sodium 2,3 dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate (DMPS). Environmental Health Perspectives. 1998 August; 106(Suppl 4): 1017–1025. www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1533322
129. Schiele R, et al. Mercury mobilization by DMPS in persons with and without amalgam fillings. Zahnarztl. Mitt. 1989; 79(17): 1866-1868.
130. Friberg L, et al. Mercury in the brain and CNS in relation to amalgam fillings. Lakartidningen. 1986; 83(7):519-521.
131. Warvinge K, Mercury distribution in the neonatal and adult cerebellum after mercury vapor exposure of pregnant squirrel monkeys. Environ Res. 2000; 83(2): 93-101.
132. Bucio L, et al. Uptake, cellular distribution and DNA damage produced by mercuric chloride in a human fetal hepatic cell line. Mutat Res. 1999 Jan; 423(1-2):65-72.
133. Ho PI, Ortiz D, Rogers E, Shea TB. Multiple aspects of homocysteine neurotoxicity: glutamate excitotoxicity, kinase hyperactivation and DNA damage. J Neurosci Res. 2002 Dec 1; 70(5): 694-702.
134. Snyder RD, Lachmann PJ. Thiol involvement in the inhibition of DNA repair by metals in mammalian cell. Source Mol Toxicol. 1989 Apr-Jun; 2(2): 117-28.
135. Verschaeve L, et al. Comparative in vitro cytogenetic studies in mercury-exposed human lymphocytes. Muta Res. 1985; 157(2-3): 221-6.
136. Klinghardt D, Mercola J. Mercury toxicity and systemic elimination agents. J of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine. 2001; 11:53-62.
137. Zinecker S. Amalgam: Inorganic mercury in the brain. der Kassenarzt. 1992; 32(4): 23.
138. Zinecker S. Praxiproblem amalgam. Der Allgermeinarzt. 1995; 17(11):1215-1221.
139. Dallmann P. Dermatalogical conditions caused by amalgam? PeDa_Eigenverisg. 1995.
140. Ionescu G. Tooth alloys: Electro-chemical and biological processes. Materialprueuefung. Komplementaeaermed. 1996; 3: 72-77.
141. Ionescu G. Heavy metal load by dental materials: Experience with neurodermitis and psoriasis patients.Zeitung f. Umweltmedizin. 1997; 3, 163-171.
142. Danscher G, Horsted-Bindslev P, Rungby J. Traces of mercury in organs from primates with amalgam fillings. Exp Mol Pathol. 1990; 52(3): 291-9.
143. Wilkinson LJ, Waring RH. Cysteine dioxygenase: Modulation of expression in human cell lines by cytokines and control of sulphate production. Toxicol In Vitro. 2002 Aug; 16(4): 481-3.
144. Tanner CM, et al. Abnormal liver enzyme metabolism in Parkinson’s. Neurology. 1991, 41(5): 89-92.
145. Heafield MT, et al. Plasma cysteine and sulphate levels in patients with motor neurone disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurosci Lett. 1990; 110(1-2): 216, 220.
146. Pean A, et al. Pathways of cysteine metabolism in MND/AL. J Neurol Sci. 1994; 124: 59-61.
147. Steventon GB, et al. Xenobiotic metabolism in motor neuron disease. Lancet. 1988: 644-47.
148. Gordon C, et al. Abnormal sulphur oxidation in systemic lupus erythrmatosus(SLE), Lancet. 1992; 339: 8784.
149. Emory P, et al. Poor sulphoxidation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1992; 51(3): 318-20.
150. Bradley H, et al. Sulfate metabolism is abnormal in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Confirmation by in vivo biochemical findings. J Rheumatol. 1994 Jul ;21(7): 1192-6.
151. Perry TL, et al. Hallevorden-Spatz disease: Cysteine accumulation and cysteine dioxygenase deficiency. Ann Neural. 1985; 18(4): 482-489.
152. Freitas AJ, et al. Effects of Hg2+ and CH3Hg+ on Ca2+ fluxes in the rat brain. Brain Research. 1996; 738(2): 257-64.
153. Yallapragoda PR, et al. Inhibition of calcium transport by Hg salts in rat cerebellum and cerebral cortex. J Appl Toxicol. 1996; 164(4): 325-30.
154. Chavez E, et al. Mitochondrial calcium release by Hg+2. J Biol Chem. 1988; 263(8): 3582.
155. Busselberg D. Calcium channels as target sites of heavy metals. Toxicol Lett. 1995 Dec 82-83: 255-61.
156. Rossi AD, et al. Modifications of Ca2+ signaling by inorganic mercury in PC12 cells. FASEB J. 1993; 7: 1507-14.
157. Abadin HG, et al. Breast-feeding exposure of infants to mercury, lead, and cadmium: A public health perspective. Toxicol Ind Health. 1997; 13(4): 495-517.
158. Boadi WY, et al. In vitro effect of mercury on enzyme activities and its accumulation in the first-trimester human placenta. Environ Res. 1992; 57(1): 96-106.
159. Boadi WY. In vitro exposure to mercury and cadmium alters term human placental membrane fluidity. Pharmacol. 1992; 116(1): 17-23.
160. Urbach J, et al. Effect of inorganic mercury on in vitro placental nutrient transfer and oxygen consumption, Reprod Toxicol. 1992; 6(1): 69-75,
161. Karp W, Gale TF, et al. Effect of mercuric acetate on selected enzymes of maternal and fetal hamsters. Environ Research. n.d.; 36: 351-358.
162. Karp WB, et al. Correlation of human placental enzymatic activity with trace metal concentration in placenta. Environ Research. 1977; 13: 470- 477.
163. Boot JH. Effects of SH-blocking compounds on the energy metabolism and glucose uptake in isolated rat hepatocytes. Cell Struct Funct. 1995 Jun; 20(3): 233-8.
164. Semczuk M, Semczuk-Sikora A. New data on toxic metal intoxication (Cd, Pb, and Hg in particular Mg status during pregnancy. Med Sci Monit. 2001 Mar; 7(2): 332-340.
165. Stejskal VDM, Danersund A, Lindvall A, et al. Metal-specific memory lymphocytes: Biomarkers of sensitivity in man. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 1999; 20: 289-98.
166. Kistner A. Mercury poisoning by amalgam: Diagnosis and therapy. ZWR. 1995;
167. Mass C, Bruck W. Study on the significance of mercury accumulation in the brain from dental amalgam fillings through direct mouth-nose-brain transport. Zentralbl Hyg Umweltmed. 1996; 198(3): 275-91.
168. Reinhardt, JW. Side effects: Mercury contribution to burden from dental amalgam. Adv Dent Res. 1992; 6: 110-3.
169. Reinhardt, JW. Tooth amalgam and pregnancy. Geburtshilfe Frauenheikd. 1995; 55(6): M63-M65.
170. Zinke T. There are new realizations to the Amalgam problem. In Friberg FL, ed. Status Quo and perspectives of Amalgam and Other Dental Materials. New York: Stuttgart. 1995.
171. Gerhard I. Amalgam from gynacological view. Der Frauenarzt. 1995; 36(6): 627-28.
172. Schdstoffe und Fertillitatsstorungen, Schwermetalle und Mineralstoffe. Geburtshilfe Frauenheikd. 1992; 52(7): 383-396.
173. Gerhard I. Reproductive risks of heavy metals and pesticides in women. In Richardson M, ed. Reproductive Toxicology. VCH Weinhelm, 1993: 167-83.
174. Gerhard I, Infertility with women by environmental illnesses. In Kruse-Jarres JD, ed. 1993: 51-68.
175. Sterzl I, Prochazkova J, Stejskal VDM, et al. Mercury and nickel allergy: Risk factors in fatigue and autoimmunity. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 1999; 20: 221-228.
176. Atchison WD. Effects of neurotoxicants on synaptic transmission. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1998; 10(5): 393-416.
177. Sidransky H, Verney E. Influence of lead acetate and selected metal salts on tryptophan binding to rat hepatic nuclei. Toxicol Pathol. 1999; 27(4): 441-7.
178. Shukla GS, Chandra SV. Effect of interaction of Mn2+withZn2+, Hg2+, and Cd2+ on some neurochemicals in rats. Toxicol Lett. 1982; 10(2-3): 163-8.
179. Brouwer M, et al. Functional changes induced by heavy metal ions. Biochemistry. 1982; 21(20): 2529-38.
180. Stejskal VDM, Danersund A, Lindvall A. Metal-specific memory lymphocytes: Biomarkers of sensitivity in man. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 1999.
181. Stejskal V, Hudecek R, Mayer W. Metal-specific lymphocytes: Risk factors in CFS and other related diseases. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 1999; 20: 289-298.
182. MacDonald EM, Mann AH, Thomas HC. Interferons as mediators of psychiatric morbidity. Lancet. 1978 Nov 21:1175-78.
183. Hickie I, Lloyd A. Are cytokines associated with neuropsychiatric syndrome in humans? Int J Immunopharm. 1995; 4: 285-294.
184. Komaroff AL, Buchwald DS. Chronic fatigue syndrome: An update. Ann Rev Med. 1998; 49: 1-13.
185. Buchwald DS, Wener MH, Kith P. Markers of inflammation and immune activation in CFS. J Rheumato.1997; 24: 372-76.
186. Demitrack MA, Dale JK. Evidence for impaired activation of the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol. 1991; 73:1224-1234.
187. Turnbull AV, Rivier C. Regulation of the HPA axis by cytokines. Brain Behav Immun. 1995; 20: 253-75.
188. Ng TB, Liu WK. Toxic effect of heavy metals on cells isolated from the rat adrenal and testis. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol. 1990 Jan 26; 1:24-8.
189. Sterzl I, Fucikova T, Zamrazil V. The fatigue syndrome in autoimmune thyroiditis with polyglandular activation of autoimmunity. Vnitrni Lek.1998; 44: 456-60.
190. Sterzl I, Hrda P, Prochazkova J, Bartova J. Reactions to metals in patients with chronic fatigue and autoimmune endocrinopathy. Vnitr Lek. 1999 Sep; 45(9): 527-31.
191. Kolenic J, Palcakova D, Benicky L, Kolenicova M. The frequency of auto-antibody occurrence in occupational risk (mercury). Prac Lek. 1993; 45(2):75-77.
192. Prochazkova J, Kucerova H, Bartova J, Stejskal VD. The beneficial effect of amalgam replacement on health in patients with autoimmunity. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 2004 Jun; 25(3): 211-8.
193. Ivan Sterzl , Jarmila P, Pavlina H, Petr M, Jirina B, Vera D.M. Removal of dental amalgam decreases anti-TPO and anti-Tg autoantibodies in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 2006.
194. Saito K. Analysis of a genetic factor of metal allergy-polymorphism of HLA-DR-DO gene. Kokubyo Gakkai Zasschi. 1996; 63: 53-69.
195. Prochazkova J, Ivaskova E, Bartova J, Stejskal VDM. Immunogentic findings in patients with altered tolerance to heavy metals. Eur J Human Genet. 1998; 6: 175.
196. Kohdera T, Koh N, Koh R. Antigen-specific lymphocyte stimulation test on patients with psoriasis vulgaris. XVI International Congress of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, Cancoon, Mexico. 1997.
197. Ionescu G. Heavy metal load with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Biol Med. 1996; 2: 65-68.
198. Ionescu G. A subset of patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Blood. 1993; 82(1): 192-20.
199. Ellingsen DG, Efskind J, Haug E, Thomassen Y, Martinsen I, Gaarder PI. Effects of low mercury vapour exposure on the thyroid function in chloralkali workers. J Appl Toxicol. 2000; 20(6): 483-9.
200. Barregard L, Lindstedt G, Schutz A, Sallsten G. Endocrine function in mercury exposed chloralkali workers. Occup Environ Med. 1994; 51(8):536-40.
201. Watanabe C. Selenium deficiency and brain functions: the significance for methylmercury toxicity.Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2001; 55(4):581-9.
202. Watanabe C, Yoshida K, Kasanuma Y, Kun Y, Satoh H. In utero methylmercury exposure differentially affects the activities of selenoenzymes in the fetal mouse brain. Environ Res. 1999 Apr; 80(3): 208-14.
203. Li MX, Tan ZQ, Qin SZ, Zhong LP, Li FH, Wang HZ, Three cases of hypothyroidism induced by cosmetics containing mercury. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2004 Aug; 22(4): 312-3.
204. de Lorgeril M, Salen P. Selenium and antioxidant defenses as major mediators in the development of chronic heart failure. Heart Fail Rev. 2006 Mar;11(1): 13-7.
205. Cutler, AH. Amalgam Illness and Diagnosis. www.noamalgam.com/
206. International Medical Veritas Association. Heavy metals and halogens displace and block utilization of essential minerals: Iodine and chelation. www.alkalizeforhealth.net/Liodine2.htm
207. Goldman M, Blackburn P. The effect of mercuric chloride on thyroid function in the rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1979 Mar 30; 48.
208. Andbar M, Inbar M. The effect of certain metallic cations on the iodide uptake in the thyroid gland of mice. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1964 Aug; 46:643-52.
209. Brownstein, D. Iodine: Why You Need It, Why You Can’t Live Without It. 4th ed. 2008.
210. Brownstein, D. Overcoming Thyroid Disorders. 2002.
211. Abraham GE. Facts about iodine and autoimmune thyroiditis. The Original Internist. 2008 Jun; 15(2): 75-6.
212. Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Hannon WH, et al. Iodine nutrition in the United States. Trends and public health implications: iodine excretion data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys I and III (1971-1974 and 1988-1994). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Oct; 83(10): 3401-8.
213. Abraham GE, Flechas JD, and Hakala JC. Orthoiodosupplementation: Iodine sufficiency of the whole human body. The Original Internist. 2002; 9: 30-41.
214. Rink T, Schroth HJ, Holle LH, et al. Effect of iodine and thyroid hormones in the induction and therapy of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Nuklearmedizin. 1999; 38(5):144-9.
215. Ando T, Wakisaka I, Hatano H. Mercury concentration in gray hair. Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi. 1989; 43(6):1063-8.
216. Jenny Stejskal, Vera Stejskal. The role of metals in autoimmune diseases and the link to neuroendocrinology. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 1999; 20: 345-358.
217. Román GC. Autism: Transient in utero hypothyroxinemia related to maternal flavonoid ingestion during pregnancy and to other environmental antithyroid agents. J Neurol Sci. 2007 Nov 15; 262(1-2):15-26.
218. Cade JR, et al. Autism and schizophrenia linked to malfunctioning enzyme for milk protein digestion.Autism, 1999.
219. Puschel G, Mentlein R, Heymann E, Isolation and characterization of dipeptyl peptidase IV from human placenta. Eur J Biochem. 1982 Aug; 126(2): 359-65.
220. Kar NC, Pearson CM. Dipeptyl Peptidases in human muscle disease. Clin Chim Acta. 1978; 82(1-2): 185-92.
221. Moreno-Fuenmayor H, Borjas L, Arrieta A, Valera V. Plasma excitatory amino acids in autism. Invest Clin. 1996, 3(2): 113-28.
222. Rolf LH, Haarman FY, Grotemeyer KH, Kehrer H. Serotonin and amino acid content in platelets of autistic children. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1993; 87(5): 312-6.
223. Naruse H, Hayashi T, Takesada M, Yamazaki K. Metabolic changes in aromatic amino acids and monoamines in infantile autism and a new related treatment. No To Hattatsu. 1989, 21(2):181-9.
224. Carlsson ML. Is infantile autism a hypoglutamatergic disorder? J Neural Transm. 1998; 105(4-5): 525-35.
225. Edelson SB, Cantor DS. Autism: xenobiotic influences. Toxicol Ind Health. 1998; 14(4): 553-63.
226. Liska, DJ. The detoxification enzyme systems. Altern Med Rev. 1998; 3(3):187-98.
227. Srikantaiah MV; Radhakrishnan AN. Studies on the metabolism of vitamin B6 in the small intestine: Purification and properties of monkey intestinal pyridoxal kinase. Indian J Biochem. 1970 Sep; 7(3):151-6.
228. Abraham GE, Flechas JD. The effect of daily ingestion on 100mg iodine in a tablet form of Lugol solution (Iodoral®) combined with high doses of vitamins B-2 and B3 (ATP Cofactors) on various clinical and laboratory parameters in 5 subjects with fibromyalgia. The Original Internist. 2008 Mar; 15(1): 8-15.
229. Shakir KM, Kroll S, Aprill BS, et al. Nicotinic acid decreases serum thyroid hormone levels while maintaining a euthyroid state. Mayo Clin Proc. 1995 Jun; 70(6): 556-8.
230. Lipozencic J, Milavec-Puretic V, Pasic A. Contact allergy and psoriasis. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 1992 Sep; 43(3): 249-54.
231. Roujeau JC, et al. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. Arch Dermatol. 1991 Sep; 127(9):1333-8.
232. Yiannias JA; Winkelmann RK; Connolly SM. Contact sensitivities in palmar plantar pustulosis (acropustulosis). Contact Dermatitis. 1998 Sep; 39(3):108-11.
233. Chetty CS, McBride V, Sands S, Rajanna B. Effects in vitro on rat brain Mg(++)-ATPase. Arch Int Physiol Biochem. 1990; 98(5): 261-7.
234. Bara M, Guiet-Bara A, Durlach J. Comparison of the effects of taurine and magnesium on electrical characteristics of artificial and natural membranes. V. Study on the human amnion of the antagonism between magnesium, taurine and polluting metals [French]. Magnesium. 1985; 4(5-6): 325-32.
235. Mercuric chloride intoxication. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1978; 20(6): 729-35.
236. Mondal MS, Mitra S. Inhibition of bovine xanthine oxidase activity by Hg2+ and other metal ions. J Inorg Biochem. 1996; 62(4): 271-9.
237. Dowling AL, Iannacone EA, Zoeller RT. Maternal hypothyroidism selectively affects the expression of neuroendocrine-specific protein a messenger ribonucleic acid in the proliferative zone of the fetal rat brain cortex. Endocrinology. 2001 Jan 1; 142(1): 390-399.
238. Walsh WJ, Health Research Institute. Autism and metal metabolism, 2000. www.hriptc.org/autism.htm
239. Walsh WJ, Pfeiffer Treatment Center. Metal-metabolism and human functioning, 2000. www.hriptc.org/mhfres.htm
240. Overzet K, Gensler TJ, Kim SJ, et al. Small nucleolar RNP Scleroderma autoantigens associate with phosphorylated serine/arginine splicing factors during apoptosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2000 Jun; 43(6):1327-36.
241. US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Summary results: Vaccine safety datalink project: A database of 400,000 children. May 2000.
242. Halsey NA. Limiting infant exposure to thimerosal in vaccines. J. of the Amer. Medical Assoc. 1999; 282: 1763-66.
243. The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Review of the use of thimerosal in vaccines, 2000.
244. Bonar DB, McColgan B, Smith DR, et al. Hypothyroidism and aging: The Rosses’ Survey. Thyroid.2000; 10(9): 821-827.
245. Canaris GJ, Manowitz NR, Mayor G, Ridgway EC. The Colorado thyroid disease prevalence study. Arch Tntern Med. 2000; 160(4): 526-3.
246. Genova Diagnostics. www.gsdl.com
247. Klein RZ, Sargent JD, Larsen PR, Waisbren Se, Haddow JE, Mitchell ML. Relation of severity of maternal hypothyroidism to cognitive development of offspring. J Med Screen. 200; 8: 18-20.
248. de Escobar DM, Orbregon MF, del Rey FE. Is neuropsychological development related to maternal hypothyroidism or to maternal hypothyroxinemia? J Clin Endocrin Metab. 2000: 3975-3987.
249. Haddow JE, et al. Babies born to mothers with untreated hypothyroidism have lower I.Q.’s. N.Eng. J.Med. 1999.
250. Lavado-Autric, et al. Early maternal hypothyroxinemia alters histogenesis and cerebral cortex cytoarchitecture of the progeny. JCI. 2003; 111:1073-1082.
251. Pop VJ, Vader HL, et al. Low maternal free thyroxine during early pregnancy is associated with impaired psychomotor development in infancy. Clin Endocrinol(Oxf). 1999; 50:149-55.
252. Man EB, Brown JF, Serunian SA. Maternal hypothyroxinemia: Psychoneurological deficits of progeny.Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1991; 21(4): 227-39.
253. Pharoah POD, Connolly KJ, et al. Maternal thyroid hormone levels in pregnancy and cognitive and motor performance of the children. Clin Endocrinol(Oxf). 1984; 21: 265-70.
254. Pop VJ, de Vries E, et al. Maternal thyroid peroxidase antibodies during pregnancy: and impaired child development. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995, 80: 3561-3566.
255. Connors MH, Styne DM. Neonatal athyreosis resulting from thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immonoglobulins. Pediatrics. 1986; 78: 287-290.
256. Asami T, Suzuki H, Effects of thyroid hormone deficiency on electrocardiogram findings of congenenitally hypothyroid neonates. Thyroid. 2001; 11: 765-8.
257. Kumar R, Chaudhuri BN. Altered maternal thyroid function: Fetal and neonatal heart cholesterol and phospholipids. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1993 Jul; 37(3): 176-82.
258. Morris MS, Bostom AG, Jacques PJ, Selhub J, Rosenberg IH. Hyperhomocysteinemia and hypercholesterolemia associated with hypothyroidism in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Artherosclerosis. 2001; 155:195-200.
259. Shanoudy H. Soliman A, Moe S, et al. Early manifestations of “sick eythyroid syndrome” in patients with compensated chronic heart failure. J Card Fail. 2001; 7(2):146-52.
260. Hak AE, Pols TJ, Visser et al. The Rotterdam Study: Subclinical hypothyroidism is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in elderly women. Ann Int Med. 2000; 132: 270-278.
261. Biondi B, Palmieri EA, Lombardi G, Fazio S. Effects of subclinical thyroid dysfunction on the heart. Ann Int Med. 2002 Dec 3; 137(11): 904-14.
262. Hussein, WI, Green, R, Jacobsen, DW, Faiman, C. Normalization of hyperhomocysteinemia with L-thyroxine in hypothyroidism. Ann Int Med. 1999; 131: 348.
263. Abramson J, Stagnaro-Green A. Thyroid antibodies and fetal loss. Thyroid. 2001; 11(1): 57-63.
264. Allan W. Maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy linked to increased risk for miscarriage. Journal of Medical Screening. 2000.
265. Wolfberg, AJ, Nagey DA, Thyroid disease during pregnancy and subsequent congenital anomalies.Birth Defect News. 2002: 2.
266. Emerson, CH. Thyroid Disease During and After Pregnancy. In Braverman LE, Utiger RD, eds. The Thyroid, A Fundamental and Clinical Text. 1996: 1021-1031.
267. Man EB, Jones WS, Thyroid function in human pregnancy: Retardation in 8-month old infants. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1969; 104: 898-908.
268. Brent GA. Maternal hyrothyroidism: Recognition and management. Thyroid. 1999; 9: 661-5.
269. Valentino M, Santarelli L, Pieragostini E, Soleo L, Mocchegiani E. In vitro inhibition of thymulin production in mercury-exposed thymus of young mice. Sci Total Environ. 2001 Apr 10; 270(1-3):109-112.
270. Nordlind K. Stimulating effect of mercuric chloride and nickel sulfate on DNA synthesis of thymocytes and peripheral lymphoid cells. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1983; 72(2):177-179.
271. Chen M, von Mikecz A. Specific inhibition of rRNA transcription and dynamic relocation of fibrillarin induced by mercury. Exp Cell Res. 2000 Aug 25; 259(1): 225-238.
272. Dieter MP, Luster MI, Boorman GA, Jameson CW, Dean JH, Cox JW. Immunological and biochemical responses in mice treated with mercuric chloride. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1983 Apr; 68(2): 218-228.
273. Laks, Dan R. Assessment of chronic mercury exposure within the U.S. population, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2006. Biometals. August 2009.
274. Laks DR, et al. Mercury has an affinity for pituitary hormones. Medical Hypotheses. 2009.
275. Lewis RN; Bowler K. Rat brain (Na+-K+)ATPase: Modulation of its ouabain-sensitive K+-PNPPase activity by thimerosal. Int J Biochem. 1983; 15(1): 5-7.
276. Bellabarba D, Tremblay R. Effect of thimerosal on serum binding of thyroid hormones. Can J Physsiol Pharmacol. 1973; 51:156-159.
277. Hokkfen B, Kodding R, Hesch RD; Regulation of thyroid hormone metabolism in rat liver fractions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978; 539(1): 114-24.
278. American Assoc. of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinolog. AACE clinical practice guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Endocr Pract.1995; 1: 54-62.
279. Choy CM, Lam CW, et al. Infertility, blood mercury concentrations, and dietary seafood consumption: a case control study. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2002; 109: 1121-1125.
280. Nath J, Safar R. Late-onset bipolar disorder due to hyperthyroidism. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2001;104: 72-75.
281. Muller AF, Drexhage HA, Berghout A. Postpartum thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroiditis in women of childbearing age: recent insights and consequences for antenatal and postnatal care. Endocrine Reviews.2001; 22(5): 605-30.
282. Kim CY, Satoh H, et al, Protective effect of melatonin on methylmercury-induced mortality in mice. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2000 Aug; 191(4): 241-6.
283. Olivieri G, Hock C, et al. Mercury induces cell cytotoxicity and oxidative stress and increases beta-amyloid secretion and tau phosphorylation in SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells. J Neurochem. 2000 Jan; 74(1): 231-6.
284. Bemis JC, Seegal RF. PCBs and methylmercury alter intracellular calcium concentrations in rat cerebellar granule cells. Neurotoxicology. 2000; 21(6): 1123-1134.
285. Baccarelli A, Pesatori AC, Bertazzi PA. Occupational and environmental agents as endocrine disruptors: Experimental and human evidence. J Endocrinol Invest. 2000 Dec; 23(11): 771-81.
286. Libe R, Baccarelli A, et al, Long-term follow-up study of patients with adrenal incidentalomas. Eur J Endocrinol. 2002 Oct; 147(4): 489-94.
287. Manzo L, Candura SM, Costa LG, et al. Biochemical markers of neurotoxicity: A review of mechanistic studies and applications. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1996 Mar; 15(Suppl 1): S20-35.
288. Sinclair C, Gilchrist JM, Hennessey JV, et al. Muscle carnitine in hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Muscle Nerve. 2005 Sep; 32(3): 357-9.
289. Maebashi M, Kawamura N, Sato M, et al. Urinary excretion of carnitine in patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism: Augmentation by thyroid hormone. Metabolism. 1977 Apr; 26(4): 351-6.
290. Benvenga S, Amato A, Calvani M, et al. Effects of carnitine on thyroid hormone action. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Nov; 1033:158-67.
291. Benvenga S, Ruggeri RM, Russo A, et al. Usefulness of L-carnitine, a naturally occurring peripheral antagonist of thyroid hormone action, in iatrogenic hyperthyroidism: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Aug; 86(8): 3579-94.